Principles and Techniques as well as Elements of Scientific Management theory
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Hello guys, this video is about a world famous marketing theory which is known as Scientific management theory. And in this video we are going to study Principles and Techniques of Scientific Management. But before starting, let me introduce myself first. I am Lavish Gupta and I am doing BBA (1st year). I think that's enough.
Okay, starting with a little general information about this theory.
This theory is given by Frederick Wiinslow Taylor in 1909. He is popularly known as F.W Taylor.
Okay, the main objective of this theory is improving economic efficiency, especially labour productivity. It was one of the earliest attempt to apply science to the management.
Okay, the main principles of Scientific Management are
1) Science, not Rule of Thumb
2) Harmony, not Discord
3) Cooperation, not Individualism and
4) Development of Each and Every person to His/Her Greatest Efficiency and Prosperity.
Let's study about each of these principles one by one.
First is Science not Rule of Thumb.
Before knowing about this principle, firstly you should know what is Rule of Thumb.
Rule of Thumb’ means the application of traditional methods or the methods decided by the manager based on his past experience.
And In this principle, Taylor states that there must be thinking before doing and scientific and researched methods should be adopted for performing any activity instead of Trial and Error method. Taylor insists on the use of scientific techniques, which are based on cause and effect relationship so that the objectives can be achieved in a better way with the available resources, skills and budget. Thus, the emphasis is on scientific decision making based on cause and effect instead of Rule of Thumb.
Next Principle is Harmony, not Discord
In every organization there are two groups of people i.e. “workers’ and ‘management’ and both always feel dissatisfied with each other. Workers always feel that they are overburdened and are underpaid whereas Management always feels that workers are good for nothing and are paid unnecessarily.
In this principle, Taylor insisted that both the groups should work together with a positive attitude towards each other and with mutual cooperation. They must share the ‘Give and Take’ relationship while working with each other for the prosperity of the organization as well as for their own betterment.
Taylor emphasized on Mental Revolution which means a change of attitude of both groups towards each other.
Acc to Taylor the prosperity of the organization depends on both Workers and Management, and thus both should work with each other in harmony and avoid discord. Management should take care of the workers in a better manner by providing them better working environment, and workers should take care of the management by giving their best towards the achievement of the organizational goals. Both groups should feel and work together as a family with one goal and in one direction, so that each activity can be done in a better manner and the goals of the organization can be easily achieved.
Now, the third principle is Cooperation, not Individualism.
Cooperation’ means acting jointly towards achieving the same result. Taylor emphasized that the workers and the management should act jointly to achieve the organizational objectives. Management as well as the employees are basically the two important component of the organization and without them the organization cannot work properly.
This principle states that the work should be done in cooperation and with mutual confidence. Employees and management should co-operate with each other. A best way to gain full cooperation from the workers is that the management should try to set the goals and standards in consultation with the workers, so that they feel that the goal is set by them and as a result of psychological factor they will co-operate sincerely and willingly to achieve the determined goal.
This principle is very important as no individual on his own can make a change in the organization. Management will always need workers to implement its plans and procedures; and the workers always need management’s help and inspirational guidance to achieve the specified targets and their livelihood. Thus, the management should try to maintain a cordial relation with the workers and among the workers because management can do nothing without the employees and as a result organization will suffer.
Fourth Principle is Development of Each and Every person to His/Her Greatest Efficiency and Prosperity.
The well being of any organization depends upon the efficiency of the workers because workers are the key elements of any organization.
Download the appropriate system image for your device below, then unzip it to a safe directory.
Connect your device to your computer over USB.
Start the device in fastboot mode with one of the following methods:
Using the adb tool: With the device powered on, execute:
Using a key combo: Turn the device off, then turn it on and immediately hold down the relevant key combination for your device.
If necessary, unlock the devices bootloader using one of the following methods:
If you are updating a Nexus or Pixel device that is manufactured in 2015 or later (for example, a Nexus 5X, Nexus 6P, Pixel, Pixel XL, Pixel 2 or Pixel 2 XL device), run this command:
For Pixel 2: To flash the bootloader, Pixel 2s boot loader must be updated to at least Oreo MR1s version first. This may be done by applying an over-the-air (OTA) update, or sideloading a full OTA with the instructions on that page.
For Pixel 2 XL only with loader version prior to TMZ20a: the critical partitions may also need to be unlocked before flashing. The unlock can be performed with this command, and should NOT be done on other devices:
If you are updating an older device, run this command:
The target device will show you a confirmation screen. (This erases all data on the target device.)
See Unlocking the bootloader for more detailed instructions.
Open a terminal and navigate to the unzipped system image directory.